Mexican painter. Born in Coyoacan, a suburb of Mexico City, in 1910 of German/lndian/Spanish parents,died 1954 in Mexico. A devastating streetcar accident when she was fifteen years old left her crippled and in pain for much of the remainder of her life. Taught herself to paint while convalescing; married painter Diego Rivera in 1929. Breton discovered her work in Mexico in 1938,in 1939 he claimed her as Surrealist in his introduction to her first exhibition, at the Julien Levy Gallery in New York. The following year he and Duchamp arranged her first Paris exhibition at the Pierre Colle Gallery. Thought of herself as a Mexican artist and a realist rather than a Surrealist. First major exhibition in Mexico at the Gallery of Contemporary Art, Mexico City, in l953; a retrospective exhibition was held at the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes, Mexico City, in 1977. Exhibitions: Mexico City (1940), New York (1942).
English painter. Born 1899 in Buenos Aires. Her family returned to England in 1911. Studied with Leon Underwood in 1924, attended the Slade School of Art in 1925 and 1926, and studied art in Paris from 1928 to 1930. She saw her first Surrealist work in a gallery in Paris around 1929,met the poet Paul Eluard at that time. A member of the London group since 1933, her work was selected by Herbert Read and Roland Penrose for the 1936 Surrealist exhibition in London, and she was one of two English artists whose work was illustrated in the catalogue of the Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism exhibition the following year. After 1936, she experimented with automatic techniques and new materials, made collages and objects, and exhibited with the Surrealists in England and abroad. The war disrupted her painting and she did not start working seriously again until 1946; since then she has had sixteen one woman exhibitions, five of them at the New Art Centre in London. In 1984 the Tate Gallery purchased her object Angel of Anarchy, first exhibited in 1936. Now Iives and works in London. Exhibitions: London (1936), NewYork (1937), Tokyo (1937), Paris (1938), Amsterdam (1938), London (1940).
American painter. Born in Galesburg, Illinois, in 1912. Attended the Art Institute of Chicago in 1932. Moved to New York where the 1937 exhibition Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism decided her future as a painter. Traveled to Europe in 1939 with letters of introduction to several Surrealist painters but found Paris deserted. Returning to New York she met Max Ernst in 1942; first one-woman exhibition at the Julien Levy Gallery in 1944. Married Ernst in 1946 and the couple lived in Sedona, Arizona, Huismes, and Paris until Ernst's death in 1976. Numerous one-woman exhibitions since 1944; retrospective exhibitions of her work held at the Casino Communale, Knokke-le-Zoute (1967) and the Centre National d'Art Contemporain, Paris (1974). Now lives and works in New York. Exhibition: Paris (1947).
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