ARES GOD ΑΡΗΣ
I) What was Ares the god of?
GOD OF WAR & BATTLE
Patron of: Warriors
Favour: Driving armies; Bravery; Fighting-strength & endurance
Curse: Routing armies; Cowardice; Death on the battlefield
GOD OF WAR BOOTY
Patron of: War booty
GOD OF CITY DEFENSE
Patron of: City defenses, City defenders
Favour: Averting war (peace); Repelling invading armies
Curse: Military invasion; Sacking of cities
GOD OF CIVIL ORDER
Patron of: City guards / police
Favour: Maintain civil order; Crush rebellions
Curse: Rebellion; Uprisings; Sedition
GOD OF ANGER & VIOLENCE
Patron of: Rage; Violent deeds; Fights; Murder; Manslaughter; Quarrels
Blessing: Restraint of violent impulse
GOD OF COURAGE & FEAR
Patron of: Courage; Manliness
Curse: Fear; Cowardice
II) What were his symbols, attributes,
sacred plants and animals?
Spear; Shield; Helmet; Armour
Drawn by four fire-breathing horses:
Aithon (Red-Fire), Phlogios (Flame), Konabos (Tumult) and Phobos (Fear)
SACRED PLANTS / FLOWERS
Serpent (Greek "drakon")
Vulture (Greek "gups"); Woodpecker (Greek "ipne");
Barn Owl (Greek "aigolios"); Eagle Owl (Greek "buas")
(NB Athena's owl was a different speices: the Little Owl "glaux")
PLANET OF ARES
Mars (named after Mars, the Roman god or war identified with Ares). The Greeks themselves called the planet "Aster Areos" (Star of Ares).
DAY OF ARES
Tuesday (named after the Germanic god Tiu or Tyr, who was identified with Mars, the Roman Ares). The Greeks called the day "Hemera Areos" (Day of Ares).
III) Who were the family & attendants of Ares?
ZEUS King of the Gods, son of the Titanes Kronos and Rhea
HERA Queen of the Gods, daughter of the Titanes Kronos and Rhea
Unmarried (his consort was APHRODITE Goddess of Love)
PHOBOS God of Fear
DEIMOS God of Terror
HARMONIA Goddess of Harmony
DRAKON OF THEBES Dragon which guarded the spring of Ismene at Thebes. Armed warriors sprang from its teeth when they were sown in the ground.
MELEAGROS Prince of Aitolia and hero who led the Hunt for the Kalydonian Boar
KYKNOS Warrior who challenged Herakles and was slain by the hero
DIOMEDES King of the Bistones of Thrake whose man-eating mares Herakles was sent to fetch as one of his twelve labours
HIPPOLYTE Queen of the Amazones whose belt Herakles was commanded to fetch as one of his twelve labours
PENTHESILEIA Queen of the Amazones who came to the aide of Troy in the Trojan War
ATTENDANTS & MINIONS
ERIS-ENYO Goddess of Strife, Discord and War
DEIMOS God of Terror
PHOBOS God of Fear
IV) Where and how was he worshipped?
PATRON OF REGIONS
Aitolia in Greece; Thesprotia in Greece; Phlegyantis in Thessalia, Greece;
Edonia & Bistonia in Western Thrake
Odrysia in Bistonia, Thrake (his birth-place)
Temples; Altars with a standing sword in place of a statue (in Thrake)
ASPECTS OF ARES
Titan Iapetos (Piercing); Titan Menoitios (Battlerage); Titan Epimetheus (Afterthought); Phobos (Fear); Deimos (Terror)
Mars (Roman god); Onuris-Anhur (Egyptian god); Tiu-Tyr (Germanic god);
unnamed war-god (Scythian god)
V) What were some of the popular myths about Ares?
SAGA OF THE GODS
* Ares slew the giant Ekhidnades, a monstrous enemy of the gods.
* He was imprisoned in a brazen jar by the Aloadai giants in their attempts to conquer heaven.
* He assisted the Trojan armies in their war against the Greeks, but was wounded in an encounter with the hero Diomedes and the goddess Athena.
* Ares was caught in an invisible net by the god Hephaistos whilst committing adultery with the god's wife Aphrodite.
FAVOUR & BLESSINGS
* He bestowed a "manly" spirit upon his daughters, the warrior Amazones.
WRATH & PUNISHMENT
* Ares slew the Athenian youth Halirrhothios as punishment for the rape of his daughter Alkippe. He was acquitted of murder by the twelve gods in the court of the Areopagos.
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